Modeling Doors

About Doors

Doors can be added in plan, elevation, section or a 3D view. Doors are loadable families, which means that the family of the door (sizes, shapes, design) can be customized and placed in the library to later load them in your project.

Doors are dependent elements on their host which is usually a wall. Like in real life, a door cannot be placed if there is no wall on site. Similarly, in Revit, a door cannot be placed without a wall.

Tutorial Objective:

In this tutorial, you will learn,

Sample Problem:

  • Add doors of following types in the Ground Floor layout as shown below:
    • Door_Single Panel: 0.9 x 2.1 m (all doors except the entrance door)
    • Door_Entrance: 1.50 x 2.63 m (at the entrance of the residence)

M2 Doors Tutorial

Sample Files required for this tutorial:

If you do not have the following files, please download them from here.

  1. “TutorialDoors_Input_LearningRevitOnline.rvt”
  2. Door Family files: “Door_Single Panel.rfa” and “Door_Entrance.rfa”

Solution:

  1. Open tutorial file ‘TutorialDoors_Input_LearningRevitOnline.rvt’ in Revit. This project file already contains walls in the Basement and Ground Floor levels.
  2. Navigate to the floor plan of  “00 Ground Level”.
  3. Doors are loadable families which means we will first need to load the family of the doors from the library (if it is not already loaded in your project).
  4. To load a family into the project:

    • Click Insert tab -> Load from Library panel -> Load Family
    • Navigate to the folder where you have downloaded and saved the Door_Single Panel.rfa (If you do not have this file yet, please download it from here).
      • Note: By default, Revit will navigate to the library where default Autodesk families are stored. If you do not find this path when you need it, try to locate it on your PC at : %ALLUSERSPROFILE%\Autodesk\RVT 2019\Libraries (If you cannot still find the location of your family library, please see this Video Tutorial: Locating your family folder )M2 Doors 1.jpg
    • Select the file and Click Open.
    • The family has been loaded into the project.
  5. Now, before we add the doors into our model, we must create the Door types with the specific sizes as required for our project.
  6. To customize the door sizes and create new door types:

    • Click Architecture tab -> Build panel  -> Door
      • Alternatively, use “DR”as keyboard shortcut.
    • From the type selector, select any of the types available for Door_Single Panel family.
    • From the properties, select Edit Type to access Type properties palette.
    • Click Duplicate to create a new Door Type. In the Name dialog box, give a new name to the door type  “Door_Single Panel_0.9 x 2.1”M2 Doors 2
    • Click Ok to the Name dialog box.
    • Now, change the parameters Width to 0.9m value and Height to 2.1m value.
    • Click OK to the Type Properties dialog box.M2 Doors 3.jpg
    • A new Door type has been created.
    • Click Esc to end the Door tool.
  7. Repeat Step 4 to load the family Door_Entrance.rfa  (If you do not have this file yet, please download it from here).
  8. Repeat Step 6 to create a new door type for the Door_Entrance.rfa family. Name the new Door type as “Door_Entrance_1.50 x 2.63” and change the size parameters to width = 1.50m and height = 2.63mM2 Doors 4
  9.  Now, as all the door types are prepared, we can begin to place doors in the model.
    • TIP: If you are not sure of which type of door types to place in your design, you can always begin by placing doors of any particular type and then later change the door type to a specific one when you have the information. This can be done by simply selecting the door in the model and changing its type from the type selector.
  10. To place a door in the project:

    • Click Architecture tab -> Build panel  -> Door
      • Alternatively, use “DR”as keyboard shortcut.
    • Select the Door type Door_Entrance_1.50 x 2.63 from the type selector.
    • In the drawing area, move your cursor towards the wall where you would like to place the door (between Grid C4-C5 as shown below). Listening dimensions (in blue) will appear to support you to find the position on the wall.
      • TIP: Hover your cursor towards the direction where you would like to set the orientation of the door. The door will flip accordingly. You can also press the Spacebar to flip the door hand from left to right while placing the door in plan view.M2 Doors 5
    • Click on the wall to place the door. Do not worry about the exact positioning of the door or orientation at this moment. You can adjust this after you have placed the door.
    • Click Esc twice to end the Door tool.
    • Note that after placing the door, Revit has made an appropriate opening in the wall automatically.
  11.  Click on the door that you have placed. Flip arrows will appear in the middle of the door. Click on the flip arrows if you wish to change the orientation of the door.
    M2 Doors 6.JPG
  12. We would like to position the door exactly in the center of the two neighboring walls as shown in Fig 1. To do this, the best way is to use permanent dimension and equality constraint.
  13. To adjust the position of an element using permanent dimension and equality constraint:

    • Go to Annotate tab -> Dimension panel -> Aligned
    • On the options bar, select Wall Center line and Pick: Individual References
    • Click the center line of the wall on Grid 4.
    • Click on the center of the Door.
    • Click the center line of the wall on Grid 5.
    • Click on empty space to place the dimension.M2 Doors 7
    • Click Esc twice to end the Dimension tool.
    • Select the dimension that you have placed.
    • There is a small “EQ” sign besides the dimension. Click on this EQ sign.
    • The dimension values will change and display text EQ instead of the values. This shows that the dimensions from the wall center line to the center of the door on both sides have been constrained to be equal. The position of the door has adjusted accordingly. If the wall moves, the door will also move with it to maintain the equal distance to its center. M2 Doors 8.JPG
    • Click Esc to deselect the dimension.
    • If you delete the dimension, a warning sign will be displayed explaining that equality constraint between the elements will be maintained even when the dimension is deleted. Say OK if you wish to do so. If you do not want the equality constraint to be maintained, then select Unconstrain. M2 Doors 9.JPG
  14. Now, repeat step 10 to place the door type “Door_Single Panel_0.9 x 2.1” near Grid F-2 as shown below.M2 Doors10.jpg
  15. Use temporary dimensions to adjust the position of the door:

    • Select the door after placing it. Temporary dimensions will appear. Click on the temporary dimension’s value and change it to 0.7m  as shown below to place the door 0.7m away from the wall on Grid G.
      • Drag a control for the witness line (the blue dots shown in the image) to a different reference, if needed (for ex: from center of the wall to face of the wall)
      • Alternatively,  right-click the witness line control, and click Move Witness Line. You can then move the witness line to a new reference.
        M2 Doors11
  16. Now, repeat step 10 to place the door type “Door_Single Panel_0.9 x 2.1” as shown below.M2 Doors12
  17. Now, for this door, we would like to position the right door frame attached to the right wall. To do this, the best way would be to use Move tool.
  18. Use Move Tool to adjust the position of the door:

    • Go to Modify tab -> Modify panel -> Move
      • Alternatively, use “MV” as a keyboard shortcut.
    • Click on the edge of the right door frame as the base point.
    • Click on the edge of the wall where the door frame needs to be moved.

      After the door has been moved, click Esc to end the Move tool.

  19. Now, repeat step 10 to place the door type “Door_Single Panel_0.9 x 2.1” as shown below. M2 Doors15
  20. Adjust the position of the door on Grid K using the Move tool as shown in step 18 to align the door frame with the wall.
  21. Now, the door on Grid I is exactly at the same parallel position as Grid K. To align both of these doors, use Align tool.
  22. Use Align tool to adjust the position of the door:

    • Go to Modify tab -> Modify panel -> Align
      • Alternatively, use “AL” as a keyboard shortcut.
    • Click on the center line of the door on Grid K to set it as a reference.
    • Now, click on the center line of the door on Grid I to align with the reference.M2 Doors16
    • Both doors are now aligned with each other.
    • Click Esc to end the Align tool.
  23. Using the methods shown above in step 10, 15 and 18, place doors with door type “Door_Single Panel_0.9 x 2.1” as shown below:M2 Doors17
  24. Navigate to a 3D view to see all the doors in 3D.M2 Doors 18
  25. After completing all the steps above, Save As your project as “TutorialDoors_Output_LearningRevitOnline.rvt”.

More References:

  • After placing the door, if you would like to move it to another wall, use ‘pick new host’ tool to move the door.
  • If you would like to create your own custom family for the door, it is advised that you first familiarize yourself with basic family editing tools covered in later sections of this course. However, if you are already familiar with them, you can create a custom door as guided by this Video Tutorial: How to create a door family presented by Brett Grinkmeyer.

Modeling walls using CAD reference

Make sure that you have completed the Tutorial Import a CAD drawing and Modelling Basic Walls, before moving on with this tutorial.

Tutorial Objective:

In Modelling Basic Walls chapter, we learnt about modelling basic walls, Trim/Extend Tools and using dimensions for modeling purposes. Please make sure that you are familiar with these tools as well as how to Import/Link a CAD drawing, before starting with this tutorial.

In this tutorial, you will learn,

Sample Problem:

  • Add walls for the Ground Floor of the sample project as shown below. Use the  linked/imported CAD drawing “Ground Floor Layout_For Import.dwg” as reference. (as imported in previous chapter Import a CAD drawing).
M2 Import wall Tutorial.JPG

Fig 1. Walls in the Ground Floor Layout of the Sample project

Sample Files required for this tutorial:

If you do not have the following files, please download them from here.

  1. “TutorialWallsCAD_Input_LearningRevitOnline.rvt”
  2. “Ground Floor Layout_For Import.dwg”

Solution:

  1. Open ‘TutorialWallsCAD_Input_LearningRevitOnline.rvt’ in Revit. This project file already contains “Ground Floor Layout_For Import.dwg” imported into the floor plan view of  “00 Ground Level”. It also contains the basic wall types required for the project.
  2. Navigate to the floor plan of  “00 Ground Level”. Notice the Imported CAD drawing in the view.
  3. Now, before modelling walls, let’s hide the layers of the CAD drawing which are not necessary for us at the moment.
  4. To hide layers of the CAD file:

    • Go to View tab -> Graphics panel -> Visibility Graphics -> Visibility Graphics Override dialog box will appear.
      • Alternatively, use “VG” as a keyboard shortcut.
    • Go to Imported Categories tab.
    • Expand the row with the name of the CAD file:  Ground Floor Layout_For Import.dwg
    • The list of all layers available are present.
    • Turn off the checkbox for layers you do not need. For example, furniture layer with the name “FUR”. M2 Import wall 8
    • Say OK.
    • You will notice that the elements present in the FUR layer (Furniture) is turned off in the drawing area.
  5. If you do not know which elements are in which layer, you can also use Query tool to identify and hide the layers.
  6. To query a CAD file:

    • Select the CAD file in the drawing area.
    • Under Modify tab-> Import Instance panel -> select Query
    • Select the part of the CAD file for which you would like information. For example, select the text in the Grid bubble of the CAD file as shown below. M2 Import wall 9
    • Import Instance Query dialog box will appear showing the information of the selected element.
    • Choose “Hide in View” to hide the shown layer from the drawing area.
    • Continue to make further queries, if you like.
    • After completing, Click Esc to end the Query tool.
  7. Using Steps 4 and 6, turn off all layers except layer “wall”(for walls) and “dw”(for doors and windows). M2 Import wall 10
  8. Now, let’s create the walls of the kitchen room between Grid C-2 and G-4.
  9. First, we will have to know the wall thickness/wall type required.
  10. Use dimension tool to know the wall thickness.
  11. To place a dimension:

    • Go to Annotate tab -> Dimension panel -> Aligned
      • Alternatively, use “DI”as a keyboard shortcut.
    • Click the line (of the CAD file) at the face of the wall.
    • Click on the other face of the wall for which dimension is needed.
    • Click in an empty space to place the dimension.
    • In this case as shown below, the wall thickness is 230mm/0.23m M2 Import wall 11
  12. Now, there are two ways to model walls. One is to sketch the wall in a rectangular/striaght line shape snapping on the CAD lines. The other is to use ‘Pick line’ tool. Let’s learn both.
  13. At this point, ignore the openings for Doors and Windows. When Doors and windows are modeled, openings will be made automatically by Revit in the walls.
  14. To sketch walls by snapping on the CAD lines:

    • Click Architecture tab -> Build panel -> Wall drop-down -> Wall: Architectural
      • Alternatively, use keyboard shortcut ‘WA’.
    • From the Type Selector, select ‘230mm Brick Masonry’ wall type.
    • From the Draw panel, select Rectangle as shape.
    • On the options bar, select Location Line as the Core Face Exterior as we want to match the exterior brick face of the wall to the outer rectangle in CAD. (Learn more about Location Line here).
    • On the options bar, Set the Height constraint to “01 First Floor Level”.
    • Enter the start and end point of the rectangle by snapping on the CAD lines as shown below.M2 Import wall 12
    • The rectangular wall has been created.
  15. Let’s model walls between Grid B-5 to E-9 using ‘Pick Lines’ tool.
  16. To model walls using Pick Lines tool:

    • Click Architecture tab -> Build panel -> Wall drop-down -> Wall: Architectural
      • Alternatively, use keyboard shortcut ‘WA’.
    • From the Type Selector, select ‘230mm Brick Masonry’ wall type.
    • On the options bar, select Location Line as the Core Face Exterior as we want to match the exterior brick face of the wall to the outer rectangle in CAD. (Learn more about Location Line here).
    • On the options bar, Set the Height constraint to “01 First Floor Level”.
    • From the Draw panel, select ‘Pick Lines’ tool.
    • In the drawing area, select the edge/line of the CAD file as shown below where you would like to place a wall. A blue dotted reference line will be shown while you try to select the line – to show in which direction the wall will be placed. Keep your cursor towards the direction where you want to place the wall and then when the dotted reference is showing correctly, click to place the wall. M2 Import wall 14
    • The wall has been placed of the length equal to the line selected.
    • Similarly, select lines/edges in all four directions of the room – as shown below.
      • TIP: . In CAD, lines that you pick may not represent the actual length of the wall. Instead of picking multiple lines and create more instances of the walls along the length of the wall, use Trim/Extend tools to reduce the number of Instances.M2 Import wall 15
    • Using Trim/Extend to Corner tool connect all four walls in a rectangular shape.
      • Go to Modify Tab -> Modify Panel -> select Trim/Extend to Corner
        • Alternatively, use keyboard shortcut ‘TR’.
      • Click on the two walls between which a L Corner is needed to be created.
    • A rectangular wall between Grid B-5 to E-9 has been created.M2 Import wall 16
  17. Now, let’s create more walls between Grid G-2 and K-4.
  18. Using Pick Lines tool (as shown in step 16), create walls of 230mm wall type on vertical Grid I and K as shown below.M2 Import wall 17
  19. Using Trim/Extend to Corner tool connect the wall on Grid 2 with Grid K.
    • Note on Best Practice: Now, instead of creating an additional horizontal instance on Grid 2, it is better to use Trim/Extend to Corner tool to extend the length of the wall to connect with the vertical walls added in the previous step 18.
  20. Using Pick Lines tool (as shown in step 16), create walls of 230mm wall type on horizontal Grid 3 and 110mm wall type on the partition wall located slightly above Grid 3 as shown below.M2 Import wall 18
  21. Using Trim/Extend Multiple Element, extend these walls towards the vertical wall on Grid I.
  22. To Trim/Extend Multiple Element:

    • Go to Modify Tab -> Modify Panel -> select Trim/Extend Multiple Element
    • Click on the vertical wall on Grid I to define the border for extension.
    • Click on the horizontal walls around Grid 3 that needs to be extended.
    • A Tee-Junction has been created between these walls.
    • Click Esc to end the tool.M2 Import wall 19.JPG
  23. To draw other walls on the Ground Floor layout as shown below, use either the sketch walls (as shown in step 14) or Pick Lines tool (as shown in step 16). Reduce the number of instances by using Trim/Extend tools. M2 Import wall 20.JPG
    • TIP: Switch to “Shaded” visual style to clearly see where the walls have been already modeled.
      • Go to View Control Bar -> Visual Style -> Graphic Display Options -> ShadedM2 Import wall 21.jpg
  24. After completing modeling all walls, you may choose to hide the imported CAD file to see the Revit model clearly.
  25. To hide the imported CAD file,

    • Go to Visibility Graphics (“VG”as a keyboard shortcut).
    • Go to Imported Categories tab -> Select the Imported CAD file and turn off the checkbox beside the name of the CAD file.M2 Import wall 22.JPG
    • Say OK.
  26. The CAD file is now hidden from the view. If you want, you can repeat the step 25 and turn on the checkbox in the visibility graphics to unhide the imported CAD file.
  27. After all the walls are created and if you do not need the imported CAD file, you may select and delete it from the project.
    • TIP: If you have linked your CAD file, then you may unload the link by going to Insert -> Manage Links -> CAD Formats -> Unload. When you need the file again, you can Reload it in the project. If you are sure that you do not need the linked file again, then you can also remove it instead of unloading it.
  28. Navigate to a 3D view to see all the walls in 3D. M2 Import wall 23.JPG
  29. After completing all the steps above, Save As your project as “TutorialWallsCAD_Output_LearningRevitOnline.rvt”.

More References:

Adding Section Views

About Section Views

Section views cut through the model at a cutting plane specified and show a 2D  orthographic projection in the view. Creating section views in a CAD program requires a lot of manual effort. Whereas, in Revit, creating a section view is automated saving significant time and energy. It is as simple as drawing a line to specify the section plane and that’s it! Because the modeled elements in Revit are 3D, the software is able to create their 2D projection along the specified plane automatically. If any building elements are revised, added or removed in the building model, the changes are also reflected in the section views automatically – saving a lot of time, money and energy in coordination of all drawings.

Tutorial Objective:

In this tutorial, you will learn,

Sample Problem:

  • Create a vertical section with a split segment
  • Create a horizontal section with a break line
  • Hide Grid lines from the section view
  • Hide surface pattern of the wall in the section view
M2 Tutorial 1

Fig 1. Basement Floor layout with two section lines

M2 Tutorial 2

Fig 2. Section 1 with Grid Lines and Wall surface pattern turned off

File required for this tutorial: 

“TutorialSectionView_Input_LearningRevitOnline.rvt” (If you do not have this file, please download it from here.)

Solution:

  1. Open tutorial file “TutorialSectionView_Input_LearningRevitOnline.rvt” in Revit. This project file already contains levels, grids and walls in the basement floor level.
  2. Navigate to the floor plan of  “-01 Basement Floor Level”.
  3. Now, let’s create a vertical section line as shown in Fig 1.
  4. Add a section View:

    • Click View tab -> Create panel -> Section
    • From the Type selector, select ‘Building Section’ type.
    • In the drawing area, place the cursor at the starting point of the section, and drag through the model. Click when you reach the end point of the section.
    • The section line has been created. M2 Section 1
    • Click Esc to end the section tool.
      • TIP: Click on the section line -> Click on the Flip arrow beside the section head to flip the direction of the section view.
    • Double Click on the section head (the blue bubble like symbol), to go to the section view.
      • Alternatively, click on the section line -> right click -> Go to View
      • Alternatively, navigate to the project browser -> Under Sections -> Double click on the name of the section view to open it.M2 Section 2
  5. When you open the section view, you will notice that building elements are shown as cut from the section line that you drew in the layout.
  6. To rename the section view:

    • Go to the project Browser -> Right click on the section view you would like rename -> On the right click menu, go to Rename -> Change the name of the view and press Enter.
      • Alternatively, click on the section line in the drawing area -> Go to properties -> Under Identity Data -> View Name parameter -> Change the name of the view and press Enter.M2 Section 6
  7. Using the Crop and Far Clip Offset, you can adjust which elements are included in your section view and which are excluded from it. Use the following procedure to adjust the width (crop) and the depth(far clipping) of a section view.
  8. Adjust Crop Boundary and Far Clip Offset of a section view:

    • Navigate to the floor plan of “-01 Basement Floor Level”.
    • Click on the section line that you added in step 3.
    • Notice a blue dotted line in front and on sides of the section line.M2 Section 4
    • The dotted line in front and parallel to the section line is the far clip offset plane which control the depth of the view. Only those elements are displayed in the view which are within the boundary line of far clip offset plane. Use the blue arrows to adjust the boundary.
    • The dotted lines on sides control the crop region (width) of the section view. Only those elements are displayed in the view which are within the boundary line of crop region. Use the blue arrows to adjust the boundary.
    • You can also adjust these parameters from the properties of the section line. Click on the section line -> Go to Properties -> Under Extents -> Notice the Crop and Far Clip Offset settings.M2 Section 5
    • To control the display of elements when they are cut at the far clip plane, adjust the Far Clipping options. Learn more about this Setting here.
    • Adjust the Far clip plane and Crop boundary of the section view and then go to the section view to see how the impact of those adjustments.
  9. To control which elements to display and which to turn off in a view, use Visibility Graphics Settings.
  10. Turn on/off elements in a section view:

    • Visibility Graphics allow you to hide/show element categories in a specific view. For example, let’s say that we want to turn off all the Grid lines from the section view.
    • Open a Section view from the project browser.
    • Go to View Tab -> Graphics panel -> Visibility / Graphics
      • Alternatively, use keyboard shortcut “VG”.
    • A list of all Revit categories are displayed.
    • As Grids are annotation elements. Go to Annotation Categories tab. Scroll down from the list of categories to find Grids. There is a checkbox besides the Grids category. Turn it off. M2 Section 7
    • Say OK.
    • Note that all Grid lines in the view are hidden now.
    • To turn them back on, go back to Visibility /Graphics and turn the checkbox on besides the Grid category.
  11. Visibility/Graphics settings can also be used to control how elements are displayed when in a projection and cut in a section.
  12. Adjust Project/Cut display of elements in a view:

    • Let’s say that we want to turn off surface patterns of walls that are displayed in the section view as shown in the image below.M2 Section 3
    • Go to View Tab -> Graphics panel -> Visibility / Graphics
      • Alternatively, use keyboard shortcut “VG”.
    • A list of all Revit categories are displayed. As Walls are model elements, go to Model Categories list and scroll down to Walls category.
    • Under Project/Surface -> Patterns -> Click on Override -> Turn off the Foreground pattern by switching off the Visible checkbox.M2 Section 8
    • Click OK to Fill pattern Graphics dialog box.
    • Click OK to Visibility / Graphics Override dialog box.
    • Note the change in the section view. The brick pattern of the walls shown in projection are turned off.M2 Section 9.JPG
  13. Go back to the floor plan of  “-01 Basement Floor Level”. Repeat step 4 to add a horizontal section as shown in Fig 1. By default, the name of the section view will be “Section 2”, continuing the number sequence from the previous section. Follow Step 6, if you would like to rename the section view. Repeat Step 8, to adjust the far clip offset and crop boundaries as shown in the image below.M2 Section 10
  14. Sometimes for presentation purposes, you may not want the section line to appear across the entire drawing. In this case, the section line is required to be displayed as broken lines instead of one continuous line.
  15. To break a section line:

    • Click the section line of Section 2 (section line you created in step 13).
    • Notice the break control symbol on the line.
    • Click on the break control symbol to break the section line.
    • The section break is in the middle of the section line. The following images show the same section, whole and broken.
    • To rejoin the section line, click the break control again.
    • A break in a section line is view-specific. It affects the display of the section only in the view where the break was made.
  16. If you would like to split the cutting plane of the section view in order to show two different areas of the model, you can use ‘split segment’ tool.
  17. To split section line segment:

    • Click on the section line of Section 1 (vertical section line created in step 4).
    • Go to Modify|Views tab -> Section -> Split Segment
    • Click on the section line from where you would like to begin the split.
    • Move your cursor in the direction where you would like to position the split segment. Click where you want to place it.
    • A section line has been split.
    • Click Esc twice to end the Split Segment tool.
    • Click on the section line again.
    • Using the arrows on the section line, you can adjust the split segments, if necessary.M2 Section 12
    • Go to the view and observe how the view is revised after the split segment.
  18. After completing all of the above steps, Save As your project as “TutorialSectionView_Output_LearningRevitOnline.rvt”

TIPS

  • TIP: Custom Section Tag

The type properties of the section line specifies which section tag to use. The Section tag contains a section head and a section tail. Both, the head and the tail, are symbols that can be selected from the properties of the section tag.

To customize the section tag symbol, a section head family needs to be created and then added to a section tag.

Step 1: How to create a section head family? / Video Tutorial: Create a custom section head family presented by RevitWhisperer

Step 2: How to add the section head family into a section tag?section tag


More References

Modeling Basic Walls

About Walls

Unlike CAD tools, Revit elements are information rich and have behavioral patterns as if in a real construction site. For example, a Wall would understand that it must have a height that is connected to a particular level. It understands that it has a thickness, material and a function. All of this information can be given at the time of modeling in Revit or can later be changed once the information is available to you in the project. Windows and Doors, for example, can only be fixed in a wall and cannot be placed anywhere in the project. This is similar to a construction site.

This tutorial is about creating basic walls with single structural layer. If you would like to learn about creating walls with multi-layers (adding layers for finishes, structure, membranes, insulation, etc.), please go to the tutorial Compound Structures.

Tutorial Objective:

In this tutorial, you will learn,

Sample Problem:

Add basic walls in the sample tutorial project as shown below:

M2 wall tutorial

Fig 1. Walls in the Basement Floor level of the Sample Tutorial Project

  • Wall Base Constraint: -01 Basement Floor Level
  • Wall Top Constraint: 00 Ground Level
  • Wall Thickness: 360mm, 230mm and 110mm as indicated in Fig 1.

Sample File required for this tutorial: “TutorialWalls_Input_LearningRevitOnline.rvt” (If you do not have this file, please download it from here.)

Solution:

  1. Open TutorialWalls_Input_LearningRevitOnline.rvt in Revit. This project file already contains Grid lines.
  2. Navigate to the floor plan of “-01 Basement Floor Level”
  3. Click Architecture tab -> Build panel -> Wall drop-down -> Wall: Architectural
    • Alternatively, use keyboard shortcut ‘WA’.
  4. As described in Tutorial objective, the project required three types of brick walls with thickness of 360mm, 230mm and 110mm. These types are not available in the project. Thus, let’s create them.
  5. Create a New Wall Type:

    • From the Type Selector, select a “Basic Wall – Generic – 200mm” Type.
    • Go to Edit Type-> Type properties dialog box – > Duplicate -> Give a name ” 230mm Brick Masonry”  M2 Wall 4
    • Click Ok.
    • In the Type Properties dialog box, Go to Structure parameter -> Click  “Edit”.
    • Edit Assembly dialog box will appear.
    • Go to Row 2 which displays ‘Structure’ layer. Under thickness, add value 230mm / 0.23m
    • Under Material, click on the button with “…”sign and it will open the material browser. M2 Wall 6
    • Select the material “Brick” from the material browser.M2 Wall 5
    • Click OK to Material Browser.
    • Click OK to Edit Assembly dialog box.
    • Click OK to Type Properties dialog box.
    • Now, a new wall type “230mm Brick Masonry” has been listed under Type selector list.
  6. To create the wall types – “360mm Brick Masonry” and “110mm Brick Masonry”, begin by selecting a “230mm Brick Masonry” Type from the Type Selector. Repeat the process as shown in Step 5 and assign the specified thickness in the Edit Assembly dialog box. M2 wall 1
  7. Now, you have three wall types in the project as required. Let’s begin to model them.
  8. Place a Wall in a Rectangular shape:

    • Make sure “-01 Basement Floor Level” view is active currently and you see the Grid lines.
    • Let’s begin by drawing 360mm thick outer walls as shown in Fig 1.
    • Click Architecture tab -> Build panel -> Wall drop-down -> Wall: Architectural
      • Alternatively, use keyboard shortcut ‘WA’.
    • From the Type Selector, select ‘360mm Brick Masonry’ wall type.
    • From the Draw panel, select Rectangle as shape.
    • As the Basement level view is active currently, by default, the base of the wall is taken as the basement level. From the options bar, set the height of the wall by selecting the top constraint as the “00 Ground Level”.
      • TIP: If the base level/top level are different or has an offset in height, you can set these values from the Instance parameters in the Properties palette.
    • Set the Location Line of the wall as “Wall Center line” as in this case, we want the wall center to align with our Grid lines.
    • Now, click on the Grid intersection E-4 to set the starting point of the rectangle.
    • Next, click on the Grid intersection I-9 to set the end point of the rectangle.M2 wall 3
    • A rectangular wall is created. Click Esc twice to end the Wall tool.
  9. Place a Wall in a Straight Line shape:

    • Now, from Architecture tab -> Build panel -> Wall drop-down -> Wall: Architectural -> select Straight Line tool.
    • From the options bar, make sure Chain option is checked.
      • Note that the height of the wall is now automatically taken as Ground Level as Revit continues to use the previous setting.
    • Click the starting point of the wall as the Grid intersection G-4
    • Move your mouse upwards towards the Grid G and enter on your keyboard the exact length of the wall which is 4.46m M2 wall 4
    • As the chain option was checked, Revit will allow you to draw more walls without ending the Wall tool.
    • Click the next point of the wall horizontally till it meets Grid H.
    • Move your cursor downwards vertically and click the next point for the wall at Grid intersection H-2.
    • Click the next point for the wall at the Grid intersection I-2.M2 wall 5
    • Click Esc twice to end the wall tool.
  10.  Now, we want to connect the vertical gap between Grid I-2 and I-4. One approach would be to draw another vertical wall. But more efficient approach would be to use Trim/Extend tool to close this gap. Use this tool when you want to create L-shaped corners.
  11. Trim/Extend to Corner Tool: 

    • Go to Modify Tab -> Modify Panel -> select Trim/Extend to Corner
      • Alternatively, use keyboard shortcut ‘TR’.M2 wall 16
    • First click on the horizontal wall and then on the vertical wall as shown below to form a L-shaped corner at the Grid intersection I-2.M2 wall 6
    • Note that vertical wall has been extended and the horizontal wall has been trimmed to create a clean L-shaped corner joint.
    • Click Esc to end the Trim/Extend to Corner tool.
  12. Repeat step 11, to create a L-shaped corner at Grid intersection G-4 as shown below.M2 wall 7
  13. Now, as per Fig 1, the three walls between Grid G-I are of 230mm thickness. However, in our project, it is currently of 360mm thickness. To change a wall type after it is modeled, do the following.
  14. Change the Wall Type after Modeling walls: 

    • Select the walls as shown below.
      • TIP: Select one of the walls. Press Ctrl while you select other walls. This will add other walls to the selection group. Press Shift and click on a wall, if you wish to deselect it from the selection group.
    • Go to the Type selector and click on the Wall type “230mm Brick Masonry”. M2 wall 8
    • Click Esc to deselect the walls. Note that the selected walls have been converted from “360mm Brick Masonry” wall type to “230mm Brick Masonry” wall type.
  15. Now, let’s model some walls surrounding the staircase area as shown in Fig 1.
  16. Go to Architecture tab -> Build panel -> Wall drop-down -> Wall: Architectural -> select Straight Line tool.
  17. From the Type Selector, select the wall type “230mm Brick Masonry”.
  18. Using the process shown in step 9, draw walls between Grid intersection F-9 to F-6 and from F-6 to I-6. See image below. M2 wall 9
  19. Click Esc to end wall tool.
  20. Let’s create the middle vertical line of the staircase area as shown in Fig 1. To draw this wall as per its exact length, we will need some construction/reference lines. This can best be done in Revit using Reference Planes as described below.
  21. Using Reference Planes as Construction Lines:

    • Go to Architecture tab -> Work Plane panel -> Ref Plane
      • Alternatively, use keyboard shortcut ‘RP’.
    • Draw a horizontal plane as shown below. There is no need to be accurate about exact position/dimension of the plane. Draw it like you would draw a line.M2 wall 10
    • Click Esc twice to end the Ref Plane tool.
    • Select the reference plane you just created.
    • A temporary dimension will appear between the reference plane and the inner face of the parallel horizontal wall below.
      • TIP: Click on the blue dot on the temporary dimension to switch the witness line reference from the inner face of the wall to its center or outer face.
    • Click on the dimension value and change it to 1.23m between the reference plane and the inner face of the wall. Press Enter.M2 wall 11
    • Click Esc to deselect the reference plane.
  22. Now place a vertical wall in a straight line (the process as shown in step 9), starting from the mid point of the wall on Grid 6 and ending at the reference plane as shown below. M2 wall 12
  23. You can now select and delete (use Delete key on your keyboard) the reference plane as we do not need it further in our project.
  24. As per Fig 1, we need a horizontal wall that is 1.07m away and parallel to the wall on Grid 6. One approach to do this would be to offset the wall at required distance as shown in the steps below.
  25. Offset a Wall:

    • Go to Modify Tab -> Modify Panel -> select Offset
      • Alternatively, use keyboard shortcut ‘OF’.
    • On the options bar, select Numerical. Give the Offset value as 1.07m.
    • On the options bar, keep the Copy option checked. This will ensure that a new instance of the wall is created at the offset distance from the wall you pick.M2 wall 13
    • Hover your cursor on the wall at Grid 6 pointing in a direction you want offset to be created. Revit will show you a blue dotted line indicating where the wall will be placed. If this is correct, click where your cursor is. If not, move your cursor in the direction of your offset and click when the blue line displayed is at a correct location.
    • A copy of the wall picked (having the same type 230mm Brick Masonry and same length) is created at an offset distance of 1.07 m.M2 wall 14.JPG
    • Click Esc to end the Offset tool.
  26. Using Trim/Extend to Corner Tool (the process as shown in step 11), make L-shape corners as shown in the image below:M2 wall 15
  27. To create L-corners, the Trim/Extend to Corner tool is the most efficient modify tools available. However, we cannot use it to create T-junctions as we would like to to do for the vertical wall in the middle. Thus, to do this, use Trim/Extend Single Element tool as shown in the steps below:
  28. Trim/Extend Single Element:

    • Go to Modify Tab -> Modify Panel -> select Trim/Extend Single ElementM2 wall 17
    • Click the face of the the middle vertical wall as the boundary for trimming.
    • Click on any point on the part of the horizontal wall that you would like to KEEP (not trim) – in this case, left of the vertical wall. M2 wall 18
    • You will note that the horizontal wall has been trimmed and a T-junction has been created. M2 wall 19
    • Click Esc to end the Trim/Extend Single Element tool.
  29. Using the Trim/Extend Single Element tool as shown in the above step, create a T-Junction at the Grid intersection G-2 as shown in the image below:M2 wall 20
  30. As shown in Fig 1, a partition wall of 110mm thickness shall be created to enclose the toilet area.
    • One approach would be to offset a horizontal wall on Grid 2 at the specific distance (as shown in step 25) and then changing the wall type (as shown in step 14) of the offset wall from 230mm to 110mm as required.
    • Another approach would be to draw the wall and then use dimensions to place it at the exact location as shown in the steps below.
  31. Use Dimensions to position the wall:

    • Go to Architecture tab -> Build panel -> Wall drop-down -> Wall: Architectural -> select Straight Line tool.
    • Select wall type “110mm Brick Masonry” from the Type Selector.
    • Draw a horizontal wall as shown below. Do not worry about exact position of the wall at the moment. Draw it at an approximate position.M2 wall 21
    • We need to position the wall at 2.36m from inner face of the upper wall (at Grid 2) to the inner face of the 110mm wall we have created.
    • Go to Annotate tab -> Dimension panel -> select Aligned Dimension
      • Alternatively, use keyboard shortcut “DI”
    • On the Options bar, select Wall faces and Pick option as Individual References.
    • In the drawing area, click on the inner face of the 110mm partition wall. Next, click on the inner face of the wall at Grid 2. Lastly, click where you want to place the dimension in the drawing ( Try to click somewhere in the middle of the dimension instead on its end as you might do in a CAD tool.)M2 wall 23
    • Click Esc twice to finish Dimension tool.
    • Click on the 110mm partition wall.
    • The dimension text will be highlighted as blue indicating that it is now editable.
      • Note: You cannot change the value of the dimension without selecting the element it refers to. Revit must know which element it should move if the dimension value changes. And thus, it activates the dimension only when the element is selected.
    • Click on the text of the dimension and change its value to 2.36m
    • The partition wall will move as per the dimension specified.M2 wall 24
    • Click Esc to deselect the wall.
    • You may select the dimension and delete it if you do not need it further.
  32. All the walls as per Fig 1 has been created.
  33. Navigate to a 3D view from your project browser to view your model in 3D. M2 wall 25
  34. After completing all of the above steps, Save As your project as TutorialWalls_Output_LearningRevitOnline.rvt”.

TIPS

  • Learn more about Wall Location Lines here.
  • TIP: TAB to select multiple walls: To place/select walls simultaneously on an entire chain of lines, move the cursor over a line segment, press Tab to highlight them all, and then click.
  • TIP: Edit Profile of the Wall: When you place a straight wall, it has a rectangular profile when viewed in elevations. If your design requires a different shape/profile, or for openings in the wall, you can edit the wall’s elevation profile in a section view or an elevation view. Learn more about this method here: How to edit a wall profile?

Walls5

Add Grids

About Grids

Grids are Datum elements used for marking the alignment for the structural elements (columns/structural walls) in a building design. Grids consist of Grid line and Grid symbol. Grid lines can be controlled from Grid properties. Grid symbols can be customized by creating a custom Grid head family.

Tutorial Objective:

In this tutorial, you will learn to,

Sample Problem:

Add Grids in the sample tutorial project as shown below:

  • Vertical Grids from A-M at distances shown in Fig 1.
  • Horizontal Grids from 1-10 at distances shown in Fig 1.

Sample File required for this tutorial: “TutorialGrids_Input_LearningRevitOnline.rvt” (If you do not have this file, please download it from here.)

M2 Grid 6

Fig 1. Grids for the tutorial sample project

Solution:

  1. Open the tutorial file TutorialGrids_Input_LearningRevitOnline.rvt in Revit. This project file already contains the site boundary line created in previous chapter Sketch Lines.M2 Lines 6
  2. From the Project Browser, navigate to the Floor plan view named “00 Ground Level”.
  3. Add a new Grid:

    • Go to Architecture tab -> Datum panel -> Grid
      • Alternatively, use “GR”as the keyboard shortcut.
    • Click Modify | Place Grid tab -> Draw panel -> Select a straight line option.
    • Let’s start by drawing Grid A as shown in Fig 1. Grid A is located at the left vertical boundary line of the site.
    • Click the start point of the Grid at the top left intersection of the site boundary lines in the project.M2 Grid 2
    • Move the cursor downwards vertically. Click to enter Grid end point where you want the Grid line to end.M2 Grid 7
    • Click Esc twice to end the Grid tool.
  4. Select the Grid line.
  5. In the Grid symbol, click on the text to change the Grid name from 1 to A. Alternatively, go to properties of the Grid line and in the Instance parameter Name, change the value from 1 to A. M2 Grid 8
  6. While the Grid line is selected, you may notice the two node like circles at both start and end point. Clicking and dragging these nodes, you can extend the Grid lines. Click and drag the node symbol of the Grid A and extend the grid line away from the site boundary lines.M2 Grid 9
  7. Click Esc to deselect the Grid.
  8. Now, let’s create Grid B as shown in Fig 1. Grid B is located at 3.61m away from Grid A. The best way to create this Grid is to offset Grid A at the specified distance.
  9. Offset a Grid:

    • Go to Architecture tab -> Datum panel -> Grid
      • Alternatively, use “GR”as the keyboard shortcut.
    • Click Modify | Place Grid tab -> Draw panel -> Select Pick Lines tool.
    • On the options bar, specify offset value as 3.61mM2 Grid 10
    • Hover your cursor on Grid A. Revit will show you a dashed blue reference line where the offset will be placed. Click if the position shown by the reference line is correct.
      • TIP: Hover slightly towards right of Grid A to guide Revit to offset towards right side. Similarly, hover your mouse slightly towards left to guide Revit to offset towards left side. The direction will be indicated with a dashed blue reference line showing the position where offset will be placed.
  10. Grid B is added in the drawing. The length of the Grid line is exactly the same as the Grid A as we have used offset tool.
    • Note that the Grid has automatically taken the name “B”. In Revit, Grid numbers are given automatically based on the last number of the Grid that you have specified. However, if you change the value of the grid after it is placed, other already placed grids do not change their value automatically. The change only affects the new Grids.
  11. Using the Pick Lines and Offset method shown in step 9, add Grids C to M with specified distances as shown in Fig 1.M2 Grid 12
  12. All Vertical Grids are added in the project.
    • Tip: If more than one grid lines are already aligned with each other, a small lock sign will be displayed. When the alignment is locked between these Grids, extending one Grid line would automatically extend all other grid lines that are aligned with it. Try to extend the vertical grid lines from A to M as they are already locked in alignment with each other, if you extend one grid line, all other grid lines would also be extended together.
  13. Let’s create Horizontal Grids now.
  14. Add a new Grid:

    • Go to Architecture tab -> Datum panel -> Grid
      • Alternatively, use “GR”as the keyboard shortcut.
    • Click Modify | Place Grid tab -> Draw panel -> Select a straight line option.
    • Grid 1, as per Fig 1, is located at the Top Horizontal boundary line of the site.
    • Click the Start point of the Grid line at the top left intersection of the boundary lines. Move the cursor in horizontal direction and Click the End point of the Grid line where you want the line to end.M2 Grid 13
    • Click Esc twice to end the Grid tool.
  15. A new horizontal grid has been added and is automatically named as Grid N as the numbering continues from the last Grid line name.
  16. Select the Grid N. Go to its properties and change the Name from N to 1. Press Enter. Alternatively, you can also click on the text inside the Grid symbol and change the value from N to 1.
  17. Click and drag the node like circle on the start point of the Grid 1 and extend the grid line away from the site boundary lines.
  18. To create other Grids at a specified distance from Grid 1, one approach would be to use the Pick Lines and Offset method shown in step 9. The other approach would be to use Copy tool. Let’s create Grid 2 to 10 using the Copy tool.
  19. Select the Grid 1.
  20. Copy Grids:

    • Go to Modify | Grids tab -> Modify Panel -> Copy
    • On the options bar, select Multiple as we want to create multiple copies of Grid 1.
    • On the options bar, select Constraint as we want to constraint the direction of copy downwards (similar to ORTHO ON feature in CAD). M2 Grid 14
    • Click anywhere on the Grid 1 to establish it as a base point for the copy.
    • Move your cursor downwards. A listening dimension in blue appears. Do not click anywhere yet.
    • Type the specified value between Grid 1 and Grid 2 as per Fig 1  (3.16m).
    • Note that a new Grid is created. Even though, we copied Grid 1, the name of the copied Grid is given automatically as “2” as per the sequence. In Revit, Grids cannot have duplicate names. Each Grid must have a unique name.
    • As multiple option was selected, the Copy tool is still active and more copies can be created by moving the cursor in the direction of copy and specifying the required distance. Using this method, create Grid 3 to 10 as per Fig 1.
    •  Click Esc twice to end the Copy tool.
  21. All horizontal and vertical Grid lines are added in the project.M2 Grid 15
  22. Add Grid symbols to both sides:

    • Note that by default, Grid symbols are appearing on the Grid lines only at one side. If you want to add the Grid symbols on both/either side, select one of the Grid lines.
    • Go to properties palette -> Edit Type -> Type properties dialog -> Plan View Symbols End 1/ End 2 parameters are displayed.
    • Click on Duplicate to duplicate the type and rename it.
      • TIP: Making a change in Type parameter will affect all Instances of the same type present in the entire project. If you do not want this change to affect all instances, then it is recommended that when you make changes to a type parameter, create a new type by duplicate the existing type and renaming it. This way, both the original and the new types are preserved and you can switch between both if necessary / choose which instances shall be affected by the change.
    • Check both parameters to make the grid symbols appear at both sides. (Checking only one of them would make them appear at one of the sides.)M2 Grid 3
    • Click OK after making the change.
    • The selected Grid will now have Grid symbols on both sides.
    • Select all other Grids that you would like to have the same change.
    • Go to Type Selector and change their type to the new type that you just created.M2 Grid 17
  23. Offset Grid Symbols: 

    • Note that on a scale of 1:100, some Grids such as Grid 7 & 8, Grid C & D have Grid symbols that are overlapping each other. For presentation purposes, this requires adjustments.
    • Select Grid 8. Note that there is a small Elbow drag control near the Grid symbol.  Click on this symbol and then drag the control to the desired location to move the bubble away from the grid line.M2 Grid 18.JPG
    •  Do the same for Grid 7 and 9 if required.M2 Grid 19
    • Click Esc to deselect the Grid lines.
  24. After completing all of the above steps, Go to File -> Save As this project as “TutorialGrids_Output_LearningRevitOnline.rvt”

TIPS:

  • TIP 1 : Custom Grid Symbol: If you want to change the size of the Grid symbol or wish to create a custom design of the Grid symbol, you will need to create a custom Grid Head Family. Learn more about it in this video tutorial by CADuniversity
  • TIP 2: Create Grids from CAD: If you are using a CAD drawing as a reference to draw your Grid lines, you can pick the lines in your CAD drawing to trace and create Revit Grids. Learn more about this method here.
  • TIP 3: Visibility of Grids: If you are unable to see the Grid lines in a particular view, check the visibility factors.
  • TIP 4: Appearance of Grid Line: To change the appearance of the center segment of the grid line, Select the grid line. In the Type Properties dialog, change the value for Center Segment to None or Custom and adjust the properties.